Tags: care team, Diabetes, Diabetes management, DSME, family, health literacy, healthy eating, my story, nutrition, Type 2 Diabetes
My grandmother is a tenacious and vibrant woman who was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes earlier this year. She had uncontrolled blood sugar levels along with other health issues and limited mobility. With no formal educational background, she doesn’t know much about diabetes or possible complications. Her low health literacy makes it difficult for her to utilize diabetes related health care resources. “There are too many rules in my diet!” she would exclaim in Twi, her native dialect. She also has low nutritional knowledge and at times would reduce her consumption of certain staple foods. She assumed that eating less of these foods would cure her body from the disease. Her daily diet in Ghana is mostly starchy and sugary foods with low nutritional benefits. One staple meal that she eats quite often is called fufu: a soft dough-like mix of cassava, plantain, and other flours served with different types of warm soups full of meat and/or fish. Fufu is relatively high in carbohydrates and has a significant and rapid effect on my grandmother’s blood sugar levels.
As my grandmother’s caregiver, I provided diabetes care management and education. My goal was to help her avoid blood sugar spikes keep her blood sugar in a healthy range before she went back to Ghana. Every day I checked her fasting blood sugar in the morning and again two hours after eating. These results were reviewed by her PCP and nurse case manager. I modified my grandmother’s meals and incorporated more green leafy vegetables, fiber-rich foods, whole-grain breads and old-fashioned oatmeal with almond milk and honey for added sweetness. I also introduced her to cooked quinoa and cauliflower rice as substitutes for fufu, white rice, and other fufu-like foods to give her meals a nutritional boost. After a meal, I would encourage her to take a walk to the local shopping plaza or to circle around the neighborhood for an hour. Despite her stubbornness and fiery temper towards changes to her diet, we were able to improve her eating habits by stressing the importance of portion control.
My grandmother does not know how to pronounce diabetes or manage her care on her own, but making sure she understood that her medications, changes to her diet, and daily walks to her favorite consignment stores are effective tools for managing her blood sugar levels were key components to her care plan. My experience as a caregiver was a wonderful opportunity to spend time with my grandmother, and it also highlighted the importance of diabetes education in following a care plan and reducing risk of complications. I also learned how that approaching care in a culturally tailored manner that respects individual preferences, opinions and ideas is necessary for reaching optimal health.
Tags: Diabetes, Diabetes management, inspiration, my story, positivity, spirit, weight loss, weight loss surgery
When I was diagnosed with diabetes in 2010, it was a total shock. Even though diabetes runs in both sides of my family (both my grandmothers had it as well as some aunts and uncles), I never felt I would get diabetes. My primary care provider reassured me that WE would get through this and started me on metformin and I learned how to use a glucometer. At the time I thought I’ll just learn what I need to do. When I got home and started looking through my materials, it hit me hard. I broke down and started to cry. I felt that diabetes was a death sentence. I was also angry because I had been going to Weight Watchers and started losing weight! The diagnosis was devastating, but I said: I. Will. Beat. This.
I continued with Weight Watchers, but started thinking what else could I do to help me lose more weight and control my diabetes. So I thought about gastric bypass surgery. Would it be a good option for me, am I thinking this is an easy way out? So I started doing research about diabetes and weight loss surgery. I attended support groups and talked to people about how they felt after having the surgery. I realized that I was going to be 40 in a few years. I said I wanted to be healthy plus, I wanted to have children and would need to be healthy for them. Because of these reasons I decided to move forward with the surgery. My primary care physician was very supportive of my decision and gave me recommendations for weight loss surgeons at a local hospital.
My surgery went well with no complications, however I started to have doubts during my first month of recovery. You can’t eat anything except liquids, and the protein shakes I was supposed to drink made me feel sick. That, and dealing with the pain, made me feel depressed and defeated. To get through it, I kept reminding myself why I had the surgery to begin with. At my first month follow up I had lost 40 pounds and my A1C had dropped way down. I was able to stop taking metformin and my blood pressure medication. Beyond that, I started feeling better and noticed my clothes feeling looser.
As I continued to lose weight eventually I did plateau, but I was ready for it. I kept up with my healthy eating habits, making adjustments until I reached a weight range I felt comfortable with. I had my surgery in 2012, and I’ve lost a total of 95 pounds. Much of my success comes from the lessons learned from Weight Watchers and the “no guilt” attitude of my support group. I have gained a few pounds above my goal range, but it’s okay – I know I can lose the weight again and what I need to do to get there.
Diabetes was like a hit below the belt, but never once did I say “Why me?!” I know it will always be there, and it may come back down the line. For me, gastric bypass was a tool to use to control my weight and beat diabetes. Since my surgery, I have more confidence, am more accepting of my body, and have more energy. I’ve become an educator and advocate for taking charge of your own health. Gastric bypass was a good fit for me, but it’s not for everyone. If you are considering surgery, I encourage you to educate yourself about the different types of surgery available and talk to people who have done it. Do some research to prepare yourself for what happens afterward, and make sure you surround yourself with a strong support network. Do not let anyone make you feel ashamed for having weight loss surgery. Your health is yours, and in the end it’s about you, not them.
Tags: Diabetes management, grilling, healthy eating, mushroom, nutrition, summer
By Reneé Ortolani
When talking about fruit and veggie consumption, it’s usually recommended to look for the brightest colors of the bunch (i.e. bright red tomatoes, rich purple eggplant or green leafy spinach). The vibrant colors means the fruit or veggie is packed with vitamins and nutrients. While you’re painting your plate with color, leave room for the less vibrant hues too! While they don’t make for as striking a presentation as a carton of blueberries, paler veggies like cauliflower; onions and mushrooms are good sources of nutrients and antioxidants.
Okay, so technically mushrooms aren’t really vegetables, but rather a type of edible fungi. They have more in common with yeast than most of what you’ll find in the supermarket’s produce section. Some of the most common varieties of mushrooms include: portabello, shiitake, cremini, and chanterelle but there are thousands of different types of mushrooms. Mushrooms range in color from white to tan to golden and generally have a mild to strong (depending on variety) earthy flavor. Not all mushrooms are edible, though. Because some poisonous mushrooms look very similar to edible varieties, it’s best to leave mushroom picking to the expert mushroom hunters.
So why are mushrooms so great? Let’s break down their nutrients. Mushrooms are naturally low in sodium, fat, cholesterol, and calories making them a healthy option to add to any meal. Mushrooms are also packed with the B vitamins riboflavin, folate, thiamine, pantothenic acid, and niacin. They’re also the only non-fortified dietary source of vitamin D, a huge benefit to vegans. The list goes on with several minerals that mushrooms can add to the diet such as selenium, potassium, copper, iron, and phosphorus.
If you thought that was all that mushrooms offered, keep reading. Not only does this food from the fungi kingdom rate high on the nutrient scale, they provide a slew of possible health benefits as well. Beta-glucans (a type of fiber found in mushrooms) has recently been studied to evaluate its effect on improving insulin resistance and blood cholesterol levels, while lowering the risk of obesity. Choline, another nutrient, aids in sleep, muscle movement, learning, and memory, while also helping support fat absorption and reduce chronic inflammation. The mineral selenium delivers cancer-fighting qualities by assisting in detoxifying cancer-causing compounds in the body. It also prevents inflammation, lowers tumor growth rates, and is important for liver enzyme function. The list goes on with supporting cardiovascular health, improving immunity, aiding in weight management, and increasing satiety too.
With all of these nutrient benefits, where can you go wrong with incorporating mushrooms into your lifestyle? There are so many ways that mushrooms can be added to a dish. Whether replacing your burger with a grilled and marinated portabello, adding creminis to an egg frittata, or mixing shiitake mushrooms into your favorite pasta dish, this powerhouse of a “veggie” is sure to be a crowd pleaser.
So, what are you waiting for? Add mushrooms to your grocery list and try them in this delicious portobello mushroom burger recipe from the MGH Be Fit Program, the perfect addition to your palette this summer season!
Be Fit Basics: Stacked Summer Veggie Portobello Burger
6 portobello mushrooms (any dirt brushed off with a paper towel), stems removed
¼ cup balsamic vinegar
4 tbsp olive oil, divided
4 rosemary sprigs (or 1 tsp dried rosemary)
3 peaches cut in half with peach pits removed
3 bell peppers cut in half with seeds and stems removed
3 small onions, skins removed and sliced in half (preserving onion rings)
Salt and pepper (salt estimated at ½ tsp)
Place mushroom caps in a large bowl; add balsamic vinegar and 2 tbsp of olive oil. Tear leaves off rosemary sprigs and add them to the bowl. Add salt and pepper and toss all ingredients until mushrooms are fully coated (Adding additional balsamic as needed). In another large bowl place peaches, peppers and onions. Cut lemon in half and squeeze juice into bowl. Add remaining 2 tbsp olive oil with along with salt and pepper; toss to combine.
Light grill; allow it to come to medium-high heat or when you can hold your hand about 5 inches above the grill (being careful not to burn your hand) for 3-5 seconds. The process for lighting your grill will vary depending on whether you have a charcoal or gas grill. [Note: If you don’t have a grill you can roast the mushrooms, peaches, peppers and onions on a large baking sheet in a 425 degree oven for about 30-40 minutes. (The cooking time may vary slightly depending on your oven.)]
Place mushrooms, peaches, peppers and onions on grill. Grill until slightly charred and cooked through, about 5-15 minutes. Turn vegetables once half way through cooking.
Assembly: On bottom of a wheat bun place peppers, onions, peaches and mushroom cap. Place other bun half on top
Yield: 6 serving
Nutrition Information per Serving (not including bun):
Calories: 180 • Protein: 4g • Sodium: 210mg • Carbohydrate 22g • Fiber: 5g •
Fat: 10g • Sat Fat: 1.5g
(Content reviewed by MGH Department of Nutrition and Food Services)
Tags: breakfast, diabetes awareness, Diabetes Education, Diabetes management, DSME, nutrition, prevention, WDD
Tags: blood sugar, Diabetes management, DSME, Hyperglycemia, Hypoglycemia, insulin, side effect, symptoms, weight management
By Eileen B. Wyner, NP
Bulfinch Medical Group
Does my insulin make me look fat? The answer to this question is …it might. That would make it the wrong answer because none of us want to take a medication that may cause weight gain, especially as maintaining a healthy weight is such a crucial aspect of good diabetes management. The purpose of this post is to discuss how insulin works and how it may affect your weight. I hope after reading this you’ll have fewer reservations about using insulin if it becomes necessary.
Maintaining a healthy weight is so important for general health and is particularly important for people with chronic diseases such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart disease, arthritis, and diabetes. A healthy diet and weight may mean fewer daily medications or a lower dose of medications you still require. Many medications have the potential for side effects; diabetes medications are no different. Weight gain IS a possible side effect of insulin, but it may also happen with oral medications.
Let’s talk about insulin as a first step. It is, simply put, a lifesaving medication. Insulin was discovered in 1921 at the University of Toronto and has been extensively studied and improved upon since. The job of insulin is to move the glucose from the food we eat into our cells so they’re able to stay healthy and work well. It then takes the remaining glucose from the bloodstream and stores it so it can be used for energy later. People with Type 1 Diabetes are totally dependent upon this medication for survival as their pancreas does not produce insulin. People with Type 2 Diabetes can manage their disease many different ways: diet, exercise, oral medications, and insulin. Diabetes is a progressive and chronic disease that as yet does not have a cure. That is why so many people with Type 2 Diabetes will require insulin as part of their management over time.
Two common symptoms of poorly controlled diabetes are significant weight loss and excessive urination. The weight loss happens because stored fat gets broken down to provide enough fuel for bodily functions (heart and lungs, for example) to operate and maintain life. You may start to notice the numbers on the scale decrease, regardless of what you eat or drink. This is because calories consumed aren’t being properly metabolized but rather directly excreted with urination.
The treatment for extreme hyperglycemia is insulin therapy. The insulin corrects the high blood sugar, correcting the excessive weight loss in the process. The insulin is helping the body work correctly; it’s not causing new weight but rather replacing what was lost when the body was in crisis. It’s a sign the body is healing and starting to work more normally again. This is a good thing, but it can also be frustrating for people who struggle with their weight regardless of their level of glucose control. If your weight is still creeping up after your blood sugar is better controlled, there are probably other reasons for this and further investigation is needed.
Frequent episodes of hypoglycemia (low blood sugars) can cause added weight. I’ve discussed hypoglycemia in more detail in the past, but I want to review a couple of points now. Under eating, over exercising, and both oral medicines and insulin are potential causes of this frightening and potentially life threatening condition. Proper treatment is key, but it’s common for people to over treat low blood sugars because they feel so poorly and think more is faster and better. This is not the case, and the extra calories may cause added weight over time. The strategy I encourage my patients to use is trying things like glucose tablets and gels for treatment more often than juices or regular soda because they are pre-packaged for the correct carbohydrate (15grams). It can be hard to measure out 4 oz of juice or regular soda when you are feeling so poorly and anxious during an episode of low blood sugar. I also strongly encourage all of my patients to see our RD CDE on a regular basis to review meal plans and make any adjustments as needed to assist with better weight control. It is also important to be as active as possible as any type of movement will decrease insulin resistance and improve weight and blood sugar numbers.
Insulin initiation is a daunting prospect for some. Many of my patients, especially those who are really struggling with their weight, have told me the fear of gaining weight is why they refuse insulin. I hope that my explanation helps to minimize this fear. So, this brings us back to where we started. Does my insulin make me look fat? I prefer to answer this way: It makes your body healthy so you look marvelous!!!
Tags: Diabetes management, disaster planning, DSME, exercise, renewal, seasons, spring, Spring cleaning
By Eileen B. Wyner, NP
Bulfinch Medical Group
I think it’s safe to say (knock wood) that winter is over and spring has arrived in Boston. I’ve finally sent my puffy coat to the cleaners, packed away my scarves and Uggs, and begun to plan for the sunshine and blue skies. I seriously believe in “spring cleaning” because my mother drilled it into me as a kid. As an adult, I see her point about cleaning. I’d like to put another spin on “spring cleaning” and share some tips on how it can apply to taking inventory of your health and improving your diabetes control.
This was a very hard winter even by New England standards, and could undermine the best of intentions. I know personally as well as from what my patients have shared with me that the cold, ice, and snow made it very hard to keep up things like exercise and doctor appointments. The cold and dark made it hard to exercise at home, while macaroni and cheese made many of us feel a lot better. Now is the time to take stock of the past and make improvements as needed.
- Go through all of your prescriptions to check for any that have expired or you are no longer being prescribed (this also refers to any over the counter or non-prescription medications). Check with the Department of Health or your local pharmacy to find the safe way to discard these medicines.
- Look through your diabetes testing supplies and check test strips for their expiration date. Check that you have an active and extra glucometer battery. If you have glucagon in your cabinet check that it is up to date.
- Check to see that all of your prescribed medications are current with your pharmacist and let the doctor’s office know if you need updated prescriptions. It’s a good idea to have an updated medication list with you at all times.
- Take some time to reflect on your eating habits. If you’ve fallen off track, set up an appointment with your RD CDE. Don’t feel upset or guilty if you need extra help – we’ve all been there! The important thing is that you recognize the need to make changes.
- Now is the time to get exercising again. If winter slowed you down, please don’t just resume your usual routine. Start slow and gradually increase your activity as tolerated. Make sure your exercise footwear fits well. You may also need to check your blood sugar more frequently to check for hypoglycemia.
- Medical appointments may have been cancelled by you or your provider because of bad weather. Review your last primary care visit, diabetes visit, ophthalmology check, dental, and podiatry appointments and schedule any that are due.
Those of you who have read this blog in the past know that I tend to focus (some say obsess) on planning for the unexpected. Natural and man-made disasters are totally unpredictable and can cause serious obstacles for managing your diabetes.
- Go through all your emergency supplies and check for content, expiration dates of food, water, batteries, and ALL medical supplies. Review your list to see if certain things are still needed or if new things need to be added.
- You should review your disaster care plan at least every 6 months (or sooner if you’ve needed to use it). I like to do this in the fall and spring because of the weather. I’ll be sure to have several warm blankets and fleeces within easy reach in October, but in May will probably take a few out but add more bottled water given the great danger of dehydration with high temperatures and bright sunshine. I’ll also add insect repellant with DEET and sunscreen. The American Red Cross has excellent up to date data on their website for disaster preparedness so please check it out at www.redcross.org.
OK…are you ready to tackle some spring cleaning? I have another idea: lace up the sneakers and head outside to see the daffodils bloom. Happy Spring!!!
Tags: A1C, awareness, Diabetes, Diabetes management, DSME, health, Hypoglycemia, low blood sugar, symptoms, warning signs
By Eileen B. Wyner, NP
Bulfinch Medical Group
When you have diabetes, regulating your blood sugar is a full time job without any time off for good behavior. Good control of your blood sugar is necessary to prevent potential complications but sometimes, regardless of how hard you’re working, it may seem that outside forces conspire to ruin your good control. One of these issues can be hypoglycemia.
Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, is defined as a measured blood sugar that is less than 70 mg/dL. It may occur if you haven’t eaten enough, had unplanned strenuous activity, or taken too much medication. It may be accompanied by many symptoms including (but not limited to) feeling sweaty, shaky, extremely hungry, agitated, or experiencing blurry vision. If blood sugar reading is less than 70 mg/dL the recommendation is to have some fast acting carbohydrate like orange juice or glucose tablets at once and check again in about 15 minutes.
Hypoglycemia is a very serious complication of diabetes and left untreated can result in seizure, coma, and even death. When the sugar level gets too low, the body releases two hormones: glucagon and epinephrine. Epinephrine is responsible for the early warnings signs of low blood sugar, such as the hunger and sweating mentioned earlier. It also signals the liver to start making more glucose. Glucagon signals the liver to release this stored glucose into the circulatory system to correct the low blood sugar. However, people living with diabetes may also experience another type of hypoglycemia that is extremely dangerous: hypoglycemia unawareness. Someone with hypoglycemia unawareness does not feel the early symptoms of low blood sugar. People who have had diabetes for a long time are at risk for developing this condition, as are those with a history of frequent low blood sugars, frequent and extreme fluctuations in blood sugar values, and people who have very tightly controlled blood sugars.
The most important way to address this condition is AWARENESS. Check your blood sugar frequently so you’re aware of your patterns. Medication changes, activity changes, and illness are a few situations when checking your blood sugar can really pay off. Sometimes it’s necessary to check in the middle of the night on a regular basis if nocturnal or fasting hypoglycemia is happening to you. This way you can identify the exact timing of the low and not only treat it, but take steps with your health care provider (HCP) to find a way to manage your medications or diet to avoid these episodes. Targets for your blood sugar goal may need to be adjusted. Not every person, especially the elderly or people with a history of severe hypoglycemia, needs an A1C between 6.5 and 7 so discuss this with your HCP.
It’s important to work with your CDE to identify any issues you may have with managing stress, diet factors, or even recognizing what your low blood sugar reaction is. I’ve told you some of the common symptoms, but no two people have the same experience when it comes to low blood sugar. I like to compare low blood sugar symptoms to poker: everyone has their own “tell.” I’ve had people tell me “I know when I’m getting low. I see black spots/my tongue tingles/I get jumpy inside like I have bugs on me/I can’t hear clearly.” This is also an opportunity to incorporate your support network (spouse, family, and friends) into the education about low blood sugars. Remember, some people get low so fast they’re not aware of the symptoms but a coworker or spouse can quickly pick up that they’re speaking without making any sense or sweating profusely. It’s also important to curtail your alcohol consumption when low blood sugars are an active problem.
I hope this information gives you the chance to start a conversation with your HCP about hypoglycemia AWARENESS so your full time job of diabetes management can be as successful as possible.
Tags: cardio, Diabetes management, fitness, intervals, training
What’s a common excuse for not exercising? No time. With everything we do every day for work and family, sometimes we’re lucky if you have 30 minutes free for anything else. Not enough time for a good workout, right? Well, any activity is better than nothing. And in any case, it’s not really about how long you spend exercising that matters most but the intensity of your routine.
If you only have a few minutes in your day for exercise, intervals are a great way to get the most “bang for your buck.” Interval training is alternating bursts of intense activity with periods of rest. Even if you’re not pressed for time, adding intervals to your workout is an easy way to mix up your routine – good for keeping boredom at bay and breaking out of a fitness plateau.
An interval workout will start with a warm up (foam rolling and/or light activity to get the body moving), followed by a short (like just 1 minute!) burst of intense activity coupled with a recovery period. The recovery period varies from person to person, but 3 minutes is a good starting point. Repeat this activity/recovery pattern two to three more times, cool down and you’re done. Total time spent: about 20 minutes. As your fitness level increases, you can add more intervals or adjust the activity/recovery times so your workout stays challenging. If you have access to a trainer at a gym, they can work with you to create a personalized interval training plan that will help you reach your goals.
Interval training doesn’t require any special equipment, and it’s easy to incorporate into just about any activity. A few ideas to get you started:
- Add a short sprint to your walking routine
- Increase the incline on the treadmill
- Bump up the resistance when using an elliptical
Now for the disclaimer: interval training may not be right for everyone. The short burst of activity in each interval is meant to be done at a level you find strenuous but not impossible. It’s not a good idea to jump right into interval training if you’re just getting started with a fitness routine. Check with your healthcare provider first to make sure it’s safe for you do intervals. If your provider gives you the OK, it’s recommended to do interval training on alternate days so your body has a chance to recover.
(Content reviewed by The Clubs at Charles River Park. Photo Credit: Robert Proksa)
Tags: breathe, Diabetes management, fitness, mind-body, Pilates, posture, stress relief
By Janet Livingston, Fitness Instructor
The Clubs at Charles River Park
Pilates is a complete range of exercises that can be done anywhere, can increase flexibility and core strength, and help improve postural awareness. People from all walks of life can do Pilates – you don’t have to be an athlete or a dancer (or even super flexible). It’s especially user friendly for “non-gym” people as it’s very easy on the joints and there’s very low risk of injury. I like to say if you can get on and off the floor, you can do Pilates!
While Pilates doesn’t elevate the heart rate (it’s not cardio based and doesn’t involve lifting weights), it is a good compliment to more traditional workout programs. Mat Pilates focuses on strengthening the core – the abs, back, hamstrings and glutes – which can help improve posture. We spend so much of our day hunched over (driving to and from work, typing on a computer, etc); I’ll sometimes describe Pilates as a way of undoing what we did all day. Poor posture is the cause of many back problems, but as you become more aware of your posture you’ll start to catch yourself if you start slipping into bad habits. Another “side benefit” many people experience with Pilates is a sense of relaxation: they’re so focused on what they’re doing in class that they can’t think of anything else.
When you arrive at your first class, one of the first things you want to do is tell the instructor you’re new and let them know about any injuries or recent surgeries. This will help your instructor modify exercises during class – with all the modifications available there are very few injuries we can’t work around. However, if anything hurts something is not right. Don’t be afraid to tell your instructor if something feels wrong.
People can sometimes feel anxious with all the cues given during class, but know you can choose which ones to follow. The most important thing is that you remember to breathe! Also, don’t feel discouraged if you can’t do a certain exercise the first time. Classes are built on a pattern of progression and regression to build up the difficulty. If you start feeling a little frustrated, focus instead on what you can do and don’t give up.
Still not sure you’re ready to sign up for a class? Give it a try at home first. Comcast has Pilates and yoga videos in their On Demand library. If you have Internet access, YouTube is another great place to find free Pilates videos (I recommend the ones by Winsor Pilates). And always, check with your healthcare provider first before starting a new exercise program.
Janet is a STOTT® Pilates certified instructor and NASM Certified Personal Trainer at the Clubs at Charles River Park
Tags: cataracts, Diabetes management, eye health, healthy vision month
By Aparna Mani, MD, PhD
MGH Medical Walk-In Unit
Much like with a camera, the lens of the human eye helps to bring the image you’re looking at into focus. The lens measures in length about half the diameter of a dime and is made of a gel-like protein called collagen. Through the work of thin muscle fibers, the lens changes its shape to bring objects into focus. With age, pigment can collect and cloud the crystal clear lens resulting in vision loss. This clouding of the lens, called a cataract, is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. Since the normal aging process is one of the main causes for cataracts, we are all at risk for developing cataracts. However, people with diabetes, those who use corticosteroids for an extended period of time (for instance as treatment for asthma or arthritis), who smoke, or have a family history of cataracts are at increased risk.
Though painless, the presence of a cataract may cause symptoms such as increased glare from lights, difficulty with night driving, difficulty reading, and reduced ability to appreciate colors. The severity of these symptoms can increase over time and begin to impact one’s lifestyle. Though your health care provider may be able to pick up the presence of a cataract during a routine visit using an ophthalmoscope, you will need a comprehensive exam and detailed vision testing by an ophthalmologist to fully assess a cataract. Recommendations on management and treatment is based on this assessment.
Currently, the only treatment for cataracts is surgery, normally done in an outpatient setting. Depending on the degree of the cataract and its impact on vision, the ophthalmologist may recommend observation and follow up vision testing for a period of time, or proceeding with surgery to treat the cataract. With surgery, the clouded lens is removed and replaced with an artificial one made of plastic or silicone to restore vision. Results are usually apparent right away within hours to a few days of post-operative healing.
Though there is no proven therapy to reduce or slow the progression of cataracts, some studies have suggested that eating a healthy diet rich in fruits, vegetables and vitamins such as lutein is associated with a lower risk of developing a cataract. In addition, since smoking is a risk factor for cataract development, quitting tobacco use may help prevent cataract formation.